Proposed PG Level course. Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, INDIA Monsoon Semester 2016
DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES ● INTRODUCTION
00 DESIGN MANIFESTS
- as a scheme, idea-concept formation or advice
- as scheme, plan, documented actions, strategies
- as a service, installation, execution, building, erection
01 ORGANIZATIONS : An Organization is generally a formalized entity or an ongoing effort that is adaptive to many different purposes. Whereas an Enterprise mean a one time effort, or set of individualized activities.
02 ESSENTIALS of ORGANIZATIONS : Organizations are set for :
- Producing physical things like goods, structures and commodities.
- Managing and Servicing various types of systems, projects and setups.
- Designing and Distinguishing the means, procedures and objectives.
03 DESIGN ORGANIZATIONS : Design organizations are run as ‘professional’ entities. The professionalism is set by: Person own-self, Professionals themselves (professing similar skills) as a group, Society or by an Authority or Government through law.
04 PROJECTS : Projects with acute time and size dependency occur when conditions are abnormal and survival of an individual or the entire race is threatened, such as during war, a natural calamity, a catastrophe, etc. Best or most successful projects emerge in crisis like acute conditions.
05 JOBS or ASSIGNMENT HANDLING : In Design organizations a project requires distinctive human skills. In Manufacturing organizations there is a heavy dependence on tools, equipment and plants, so the projects are identified for their efficient use. Service organizations are governed by time as key element, so thrive on projects that are time intensive.
06 DELIVERABLES from DESIGN ORGANIZATIONS : Design organizations deliver an entity to a client, who is external and compensates for it. Design organizations also serve an entity to an internal person, department, or an external agency, which was deliberately (planned) created, but for which no definite compensation may be available. Design organizations allow entities to proliferate within the organization (including the sites or at clients’ places) which when properly monitored and exploited improve the efficiency of the organization, its image in the market and core-competence in the field. Such entities could be in the form of products, procedures, styles, judgements, confirmation, rejections, or assurance that every thing operates at desired or predefined level.
07 DEALING WITH A CLIENT : While dealing with clients, what kinds of behaviour, actions or attitude are considered as unethical, malafide or bad, varies from country to country, region to region, profession to profession, and time to time. In professions where rules regarding behaviour have not been formalized it may vary even from a professional to professional.
08 SPECIFICATIONS : Specification at a very basic level could be a description listing the physical qualities of a thing, such as size, weight, shape, colour, feel, etc.. These also cover changes profiled in ‘time’, in the thing itself and the surroundings. One needs to define the process for occurrence. When a description consists of both, the physical characteristics and the processes, sequenced in time, it becomes a Specification.
09 HISTORY of SPECIFICATIONS : Early measure systems such as weights, lengths, volumes, though natural were mutually incompatible, as each had a different scale of sub fractioning. The problem multiplied when equated with equally varied units and sub fractions of monetary units.
10 STANDARDS : Standards emerge from empathy or as a strategic understanding between two or more persons. Standards are commonly accepted specifications for making, maintaining, using and disposing objects, and mechanics of creation, handling, operations and management. Formation of standards’ is the raison d’etre for being a member of clan or society. Governments gain political power and patronage by administering standards. Regional blocks and International communities achieve efficiency by preventing conflict and duplication of effort through standards. Standards, very effectively and economically raise the levels of quality, safety, reliability, efficiency and commutability.
11 WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATIONS and CONFERENCES : World level conferences under United nations and its bodies, by various geographical blocks, interested groups, by political affiliations, etc. on trade, transit, labour, environment and other social concerns have affected the nature of business and practices.
12 BUREAU of INDIAN STANDARDS (BIS) : National Standards formation, in India began soon after the independence in 1947, as Indian Standards Institution (ISI). It started a product certification scheme in 1955. This was recast by Indian parliament in 1986 as Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and has since then taken over the functions of Indian Standards Institution.
13 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION (ISO) : ISO is a voluntary, democratic and non governmental organization for international cooperation. It is now a Network of National Standards’ Institutes of 162 countries of the world. It is formed on the basis of one member per country. ISO is a non governmental organization and so cannot regulate or legislate. It has no legal authority to enforce its standards. It evolves standards by consensus.
14 ISO 9000 and OTHER MANAGEMENT STANDARDS : ISO 9000 series provisions, how one conducts own work rather then the quality of the end product, because if the process is rational, it will naturally affect the end product. ISO 9000 series was to ensure that products not only meet just the customers’ requirements but also satisfy all ‘stakeholders’ expectations’.
15 QUALITY for DESIGNERS : Designers are quality conscious on two counts: their own conscience and the public compliance. Designers are conscious that ‘certain personal quality notions’ must be achieved, and ‘certain other public requirements’ must be complied. But consciousness does not translate as conscience, and conscience does not make for compliance.
16 QUALITY CONSCIENCE : Quality as per ISO 8402 `The concept of quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a project, product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy, stated or implied needs’. Quality is both a perception and a value judgment, concerning human satisfaction; the basis for both is ever changing. The characteristics of a project, product or service, by themselves, cannot determine the measure of quality. A project, product and services when satisfactory in every respect, can fail, if the external use conditions are drastically altered during its execution.
17 CONSUMERISM : Stakeholders represent bridges of social connections, which if properly cultivated help public acceptance of designers’ works. The acceptances include new clients, approvals, grants, loans. The social bridges can act as buffers, to tide over the shortfall, on quality expectations, delivery schedules, budget over-runs and professional competition. Stakeholders increase the business credibility of the organization, and personal social reliability.
18 HUMAN RESOURCES : An Employer sees performance as a tool for future efficiency to be gained at a specific cost, whereas the Employee perceives performance as immediate compensation, personal fulfillment, future promotion and skill gain. An employee can be motivated with additional advantage, comfort, increased learning, or even enhanced motivation.
19 LEADERSHIP : ‘Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members,’ a person in a position or office of authority, such as a President or a Chairperson.
20 KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION RESOURCES : Organizations receive and generate a lot of data, which have two sets of relevance. Information with distant use is strategic, and will be used for planning and forecasting. Strategic information is more general than any tactical information. Information with immediate use is tactical, and is used for decision making and problem solving. Operational uses of information are very occasion or situation specific.
21 DESIGN PROCESSES : During the last few centuries, a series of products has been ‘improvised’ upon the existing ones. Many of these products were very successful in the market, and to remain ahead of competitors had to be continuously upgraded. One needs to be aware of how others are innovating with radical technologies, styles, additional functional provisions, compactness, energy efficiencies, superior handling, ease of repair and servicing. And one has to absorb these, and deliver it fast.
22 DECISION MAKING and PROBLEM SOLVING : For solving a problem, it is necessary to, severe all the connections and dependencies, and deals with it as a unique entity or separate event. Problem solving leads to a solution or a course of action which may require solving new problems. Problem solving includes steps like: Defining the problem, searching and evaluating the alternatives and Implementing the solution.
23 SYSTEMS THINKING : Traditional building systems are linear, because the components are individually dealt, drawn, built and serviced. This makes it easier to deal with them in different time, space and by different agencies.
A system need not be a realistic structure, but could be a perceived ideology. In the first instance the system has to be web of interconnected-interdependent parts or subsystems, whereas for the second instance it is just necessary to perceive a hierarchy of relationships between several things. These ‘several things’ may not be concurrent in location or occasion. A system is composed of regularly interacting or interrelating groups of activities / parts which, when taken together, form a new whole. In most cases this whole has properties which cannot be found in the constituent elements.
24 RISK MANAGEMENT : Risk is any set of such conditions that adversely affect a human endeavour. One can avoid, manage or accommodate, risks to a limited extent, but beyond these, the effects of risks have to be compensated, replaced or transformed in such a way, that there is a sense of equilibrium. One may not be able to reestablish the lost entity, reenact the missed event or resurrect the dead organization, but one may, indemnify against such losses.
25 SOCIAL CONCERNS, RESPONSIBILITIES : ISO 14000 EMS improves operational efficiency, Cost savings, Energy conservation, Rational use of raw materials and other resource, Better recycling processes, Reduced waste generation and disposal costs, Pollution prevention. Minimize organization’s impact on environment, Reduces environmental liability and risks, Improves community goodwill and societal images, compliance with legislative and regulatory requirements, Improved Industry Government relations, and provides Competitive advantage for `Green’ products. It also offers a range of approaches for Environmental Labels and Declarations, including self declared environmental claims, Eco-labels (seals of approval), and Quantified Environmental Information about Products and Services. It allows environmental aspects to be taken in account in the Design and Development of products.
26 FINANCE, ECONOMICS : A Design professional deals with money mainly to conduct own commercial organization (professional practice) and sometimes to help a client implement the project. The second case like situations are rare, (but occasionally this do happen with small clients) here the designer gets a free hand, to spend someone elses money. However, in a professional practice it is the management of these sums that though may provide a great comfort to the client, but causes problems with the tax authorities.
Index of proposed Lectures
DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES
- ESSENTIALS of ORGANIZATIONS
- DESIGN ORGANIZATIONS
- JOBS or ASSIGNMENT HANDLING
- DELIVERABLES from DESIGN ORGANIZATIONS
- DEALING WITH A CLIENT
- HISTORY of SPECIFICATIONS
- WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATIONS and CONFERENCES
- BUREAU of INDIAN STANDARDS (BIS)
- INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION (ISO)
- ISO 9000 and OTHER MANAGEMENT STANDARDS
- QUALITY for DESIGNERS
- QUALITY CONSCIENCE
- HUMAN RESOURCES
- KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION RESOURCES
- DESIGN PROCESSES
- DECISION MAKING and PROBLEM SOLVING
- SYSTEMS THINKING
- RISK MANAGEMENT
- SOCIAL CONCERNS, RESPONSIBILITIES
- FINANCE, ECONOMICS
- EMERGENT TECHNOLOGIES (Provisional)
- SURVEYS and STATISTICAL TOOLS of ANALYSIS (Provisional)
- REPORT WRITING (Provisional)