Measures were the first standards to emerge. The first measures were based on body sizes or capacities but had many racial and regional variations. These local variations were ironed out through barter trading. But, for trade with far-off regions, the same process proved to be very difficult. Intermediaries like, brokers, caravan masters and shippers were making large profits through Conversion of Measures. The inconsistencies of the measure conversions were partly solved with monetary pricing system. Trading blocks had to concur to a common set of Nominal measurements.
Early measure systems such as weights, lengths, volumes, though natural were mutually incompatible, as each had a different scale of sub fractioning. The problem multiplied when equated with equally varied units and sub fractions of monetary units. This was sought to be solved during the French Revolution. During the French Revolution (1870) the National Assembly of France asked French Academy of Sciences to formulate a Scientific and Rational Measure System. Such a system was expected to be: Neutral and universal, Replicable anytime and anywhere, Have decimal multiples, Follow common prefixes and Practical and simple to use. The rationale for such a system forced many countries of Europe to think on similar strategies.
Industrial Revolution period saw faster means of transport and better communication systems. It fostered trade between far off regions and different political domains. The producer and the consumer were very distanced. British, Spanish, French and Dutch empires established trading outposts and their colonies, to control the international trade. These colonial nations maintained their own measurement system. Yet for inter-empire trade there was an acute need for a common, logical, definable, replicable and comparable system of measurements. As nations became free of colonial controls (such as USA) the International trade needed a fair measurement policy.
Metre Convention or Convention du Mètre: Metric System was rational but had too many sub fractions, each of the nations, regions, and trade groups favoured different sub fractions, creating confusion. First International effort to develop a worldwide policy for weights and measures was made during May 1875. Some 17 countries signed a Metre Convention or Convention du Mètre, an international treaty to create a ‘permanent mechanism to recommend and adopt further refinements in the metric system’. This was directed towards defining what constitutes a Standard Measure Units, and means to replicate it in great accuracy anywhere and anytime.
Signatories of the Treaty, were: USA, Germany, Hungary, Belgium, Brazil, Argentina, Denmark, Spain, France, Italy, Peru, Portugal, Russia, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Turkey, Venezuela.
Confèence gènvrale des poids et mesures CGPM : After the Convention du Mètre in France in 1875 a Confèence gènvrale des poids et mesures CGPM (General Conference on weights and measures) was organized in 1889. Eight CGPM, at rough intervals of four years, were held till 1933, followed by an inactive period due to world war II. These meetings gradually evolved a worldwide policy on the advice of scientists and metrologists (Metrology is science of measurements). Bureau international des poids et mesures (BIPM), is a permanent laboratory and world centre of scientific metrology, for establishment of the basic standards and scales of the principal physical quantities and maintenance of the international prototype standards.
Formation of ISO (Organisation internationale de normalisation): Soon after WW II, hectic reconstruction activities began everywhere in the world, but major impediments to this were the differing National Standards. To allow free flow of raw materials, equipments and technology a platform of common Standards and Specifications were required. In 1946, delegates from 25 countries met in London to create a new organization, to facilitate the international coordination and unification of industrial standards. The new organization, Organisation internationale de normalisation, ISO, officially began operations on 23 February 1947, in Geneva, Switzerland.
The word ISO was selected to represent the organization in all languages, because it is derived from the Greek isos, meaning equal.
Systeme International d’Unites (SI units) : 9th CGPM in 1948, meeting after 15 years gap due to WW II formally adopted a recommendation for writing and printing of measure unit symbols and numbers. The name Systeme International d’Unites (International System of Units), with the international abbreviation SI, was adopted for this New Metric System. In 1960, the CGPM revised and simplified the measure system. Seven Base Units, such as: meter (Length), kilogram (Mass), second (Time), ampere (Electric current), kelvin (Temperature), mole (Substance), and candela (Luminous intensity), were established.
SI Measurements: As a designer, we are concerned with formulating or creating new entities, and also using ready parts and components. For both the purposes, we need to specify the Measures. ISO has formulated rules for Writing and Specifying Measures in drawings, documents, specifications and other forms of communication. This is done to avoid any ambiguities in interpretation of information.
Writing and Specifying Measures: These are rules per ISO, and also better methods of writing measurements on DESIGN RELATED DRAWINGS. These apply to manual drawings and also CAD representations.
◆ All decimal numbers must be preceded by a zero, if no other digit exists. e.g. 0.121 (and not as .121 )
◆ No thousand or hundred markers are to be used, e.g. 1000 (and not 1,000), but where large number of digits are involved, a blank or space (equal to 1 digit or not less than ½ digit in width) may be used as a separator, in place of a marker. However, where only four digits are used no space as a separator need be provided. e.g. 100 000, 10 000 or 1000 (but not 1 00 000 or 1 000).
◆ For Length units recognized measures are km / m / mm which may if required must be in small letters. For example architectural plans have nearly all measures in mm, so the mention of mm should be avoided. However, in the same drawing if weight or volume or such other measures are to be indicated, then identifiers for such units may be indicated.
◆ Architectural drawings nominally have dimensions of maximum 5 digits (for mm) unless a detail requires indicating a fraction of a millimetre, signifying measures up to 99999 mm or 99.999 mts (-but unit identifiers are not to be used). Plans larger then 99mts sizes are considered of Map Category.
◆ Full names of units even when these are named after a person, are written in small letters: ampere, volts etc., with the exception W for watt and J for Joule.
◆ For liquid measure (Litre) however lt may be written as Lt (to differentiate between 1 and l ).
◆ Plurals of measures need not be used. (kms, mts, kgs).
◆ Point or Full stop for abbreviation may not be used, for example as in m.g. or ml.
◆ Where cubic or square measures are to be shown: 3m3 = will mean three cubic metres and not 33 i.e. 3 x 3 x 3 = 27cmt.
◆ Where traditionally only one unit is accepted, and if there are no chances of ambiguity, the measure nomenclature (mm, km, gm etc.) may not be mentioned (e.g. cloth width = 1.200). If in one sheet of drawing (or a document) only one scale and one mode of measure are used, the nomenclature may be mentioned as a general instruction for the drawing.
◆ Where drawings or details are likely to be graphically reduced or enlarged in processing / copying, a graphical scale preferably showing 100 mm bar may be shown. If 100 mm size is not suitable due to micro reduction or macro enlargement, suitable multiples of 100 mm for upwards scaling and 10x fractions of 100 mm for downwards scaling maybe used.
Measurements on Drawings: When both mt & mm are used on drawings, it will be less confusing if the dimension is always written to three places of decimals, i.e. 3.450. No unit symbol need be shown unless a lesser number of decimal places are used; i.e. 3.450 or 3.45 m and under some circumstances 3.5 m, are all correct. Of the options, 3450 and 3.450 both are preferred. Where no ambiguity can arise, symbols may be discarded, according to following rules:
Whole numbers indicate mm
Decimated fractions to three palaces of decimals indicate m (and also by implication, mm)
All other dimensions must be followed by the unit symbol.
Where dimensions refer to different types of measures (lengths, weights, temperature etc.), preferably all units should be indicated or all units other than the major one should be indicated.
Main dimensions and the tolerance (fitments, limits, margins etc.) etc. should be in the same unit system.
Where main dimensions are accompanied by + or – range, both should be in the same unit.
Need for a Coordinated Measure System: Consistency of dimensions allows use of standard tools, equipments, plants and technologies. The dimensional consistency can rationalize the conversion processes, storage, handling, and waste management. ‘Raw materials or Finished product‘s are transient terms for goods. A finished product is a raw material for some other process. Raw materials procured in a linear, square, volumetric, weight or liquid measures get processed into a different ‘measure’ entity. And so for products transiting from one measure phase to another, a persistent dimensioning system is very advantageous.
ISO Modular Preferences
The SI recognized that widely spaced (1000 factored) measurements were either too large or small and not amenable to unit formation for processes like planning, design, production, transportation, fabrication or execution, etc. ISO (International Standards Organization) as a result devised a practical modular system of dimensions known as ISO Modular Preferences. Most National Standards (including Indian Standards) are enforcing the same. It accommodates traditional modular systems, such as foot-Inch and earlier versions of the metric systems. This was done for wider acceptance and to achieve a gradual changeover.
ISO’s Four Preferences for Modular Coordination
First Preference300 mm = 12″
Second Preference100 mm = 4″
Third Preference50 mm = 2″
Fourth Preference25 mm = 1″
▪ First Preference is favoured by the building materials’ industry. Plywoods and other wood products are available in modules of 300 such as 600, 900, 1200, 1800, 2400 etc. Large buildings are designed with 300 as the modular measure. But, for smaller spaces such as Bedrooms, toilets, second preference of 100 is used as a module.
▪ Second Preference is considered to be the most appropriate one for Building components and Planning. Glazed Tiles are available in multiples of 100 mm, with sizes like 100 x 200, 200 x 200, 200 x 300 etc., and also in sizes such as 150 x 150, 150 x 200 etc. as a carry over from the old system. Fabrics have widths of 600, 900, 1000, 1200, 1800 etc. For Windows or Doors width x height are measured in 100 mm increments.
▪ Third and Fourth Preferences are not to be used for basic object sizes of more than 300, unless there are strong economic or functional reasons for doing differently.
Implications of Modular Coordination of Dimensions : There are many products where smaller modulation or variations are desirable such as Garments and Shoes. ISO Modular Preferences, also do not consider variations in naturally available materials. Furniture, fittings and fixtures designed with ergonomic profile or serving anthropometric, inconsistencies have no specific accommodation in this system. ISO is a modular system to form a grid or matrix for macro planning and in that sense takes a superior position. Components and parts are expected to fit in the system and as a result, work-sizes of components and assemblies should be determined by taking account of space for joint and allowance for tolerances.
The ISO Modular Coordination of Dimensions, is unnatural and does not relate to human body. It creates an ‘order that lacks beauty‘. ISO Modular system has predictable progression-digression, unlike many mathematical orders and systems like Corbusier’s Modulor system.
ISO Modular Preferences, as a universally agreed system of preferred measures, disciplines design, procurement, production, conveyance, handling, storage, distribution, usage, wastage and reuse or recycling of materials. The system providesa level ground to compare standards of various countries, and evolve world standards (ISO) for various products, services and work or operational procedures. It has made the writing of specification lucid and logical. It simplifies taxation procedures, costing, estimating, and valuation. It also rationalizes deployment of human and energy resources. It has made quality control procedures very objective.
An Abstract Dimension Modulating System like ISO stifles the creative instincts but has universal acceptance. The Dimensioning system defies all localized traditions, cultural variations, anthropometric distinctions, racial biases and geographical peculiarities.
09 HISTORY of SPECIFICATIONS part of the lecture series DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES
Specifications help to recollect or reenact a happening. Specification formation is also a process of improvisation and rationalization. Specifications are likened to a cookery recipe, a set of instructions for materials and methods to generate a product or initiate an action. A specification is the ‘best possible definition or explanation at a given time, for a given situation’, a continuously evolving experience, where familiarity reveals greater details.
From Description to Specification
Specifications at a very basic level could be a description listing the physical qualities such as size, weight, shape, colour, feel, etc. of a thing. These also cover changes profiled in ‘time‘, in the thing itself and the surroundings. One needs to define the process for occurrence. When a description consists of both, the physical characteristics and the processes, sequenced in time, it becomes a Specification.
When goods and materials are comparatively new and their effects are not fully known, ignorance and fear dominate. Negative specifications, therefore mention, undesirable aspects that must be avoided. Negative specifications relate to things that are harmful, unpredictable and debilitative for life. All specifications initially tend to be Negative, but gradually become Affirmative. Negative specification may, however, remain ‘independent statements with insufficient corroboration’. Negative specifications are eliminating, and so allow a vast degree of openness. Results or creations, through negative specifications may prove to be unexpected and even detrimental. Gradually, with realization of all causes and effects, the initial Negative Specifications become elaborate and affirmative statement or Positive Specifications.
Affirmative or Positive Specifications
When things are familiar and their effects are well documented, affirmative Specifications come into being. A specification becomes affirmative on being corroborated through detailing of all sub aspects or parts. Affirmative specifications gain their clarity through cross references or dependency on similar other specifications. Affirmative specifications are very rigid, complete and positive, so allow little variations, alterations or improvisations. For these reasons these do not seem very innovative, however, results are better guaranteed. Negative specifications are too thin, whereas the affirmative specifications are too elaborate and technically complex. A reliable and secure way out of such a dilemma is to look for a Comparative Condition somewhere, and relate to it.
Comparative Specifications are dependent specifications. Here an item is imitated or referenced because it offers an assurance. People, who are technically incompetent to define a problem or its context, tend to seek a known product. An original thing may be perfect in its own, but the same in a different context or environment may precipitate unseen problems. It is very difficult to search for a root cause of a fault, or a deficiency through such specifications. Comparative specifications are usually non-innovative or creative.
Forms of Specifications ● Messages or Documents
● Oral instructions or messages are the simplest way of conveying details. These are ordered or delivered in chronological order, or at least have some cause-effect arrangement, and so seem action-oriented.
● Written or recorded documents are substantial means of conveying the specifications. Documents are complex and bulky as these also include methods for access, reference, and interpretation.
Forms of Specifications ● Traditional Specifications
● Traditional Specifications define constituents and production processes. Primary way of specifying a thing is through the measures, sensorial aspects and physical qualities. Time definitions like, rate and quantum of change are required. Items flourishing for their Performance (output-input, yield rate, productivity, etc.) require checks and evaluation processes and operational assurances through guarantees and warrantees.
Forms of Specifications ● Specifications of Technical Nature
● Specifications of Technical Nature depend on drawings and flow charts (scaled representations and surrogates using symbols, metaphors, etc.). Drawings show size, shape, scale and such other physical details, but require a written backup to show the sensorial aspects like weight, speed, odour, warmth, etc. Drawings are sometimes backed with scaled models (art cartoons, mock-ups, dummies, samples, pilots, etc.), or full-size replicas.
■ Brand-name Specifications are restrictive, and limit the bidding to a single product. The only competition will be between various suppliers of the same product.
■ Brand-name or its Equivalent Specifications cite one or more brand-names, model identity or other details to identify certain category of products. The vendor is asked to show that offered product is indeed identical. The procuring agency reserves the right to determine equivalency. Brand-name or its equivalents have perhaps a legitimate ground, but very limited place in public purchases.
Specifications Formats ■ Lists of Qualified or eligible products
■ Lists of Qualified or eligible products are maintained and periodically updated by Government’s agencies, for purchase of commonly used items by various departments. A vendor quotes + or – over the quoted price. In India, DGS&D (Directorate General of Supplies & Disposals) creates such lists. The term goods used in this manual apply to articles, materials, commodities, livestock, furniture, fixtures, raw material, spares, instruments, machinery, equipment, plants but excluding books, publications, periodicals, etc.
Specifications Formats ■ Design Specifications
■ Design Specifications also called Item Specifications. This is a traditional scheme of creating an item, or prescription of what an entity should be in its completed form. Here the manufacturer or supplier is emphatically told what and how to produce or deliver, leaving no chance for technologically or economically a superior item.
■ Performance Specifications are the expectations how an entity should function or what performance it offers. The specifier communicate the requirements as to, What will be an acceptable product, and How the adequacy of the product will be judged. The vendor gets substantial freedom in offering the most appropriate technology. There is a tendency to demand performance requirements that are very high in comparison to actual projections, which leads to cost escalation. Problems arise when test methods for judging adequacy of a product could require a ‘Destructive Testing’ or a ‘Laboratory or Plant-based facility’. Full activation or critical testing of an atomic reactor may not be feasible, or a long term performance of material cannot be checked in any setup.
■ Operational specifications relate to the functioning of the item. Operational specifications are not performance specifications, but details about mitigating risks arising out of operation of a system.
Dependent and Independent Specifications
◆ Dependent and independent specifications have a web of dependencies. These specifications are variously linked to use of parts, components, tasks, materials, equipments, costs and operational charges, and so once included, any alterations need to be carefully monitored. Such specifications cannot be changed without any consequent repercussions. Though, rationalization of a sub-aspect helps in rationalization of the larger object or job, yet restrain is necessary.
Specifications for Open-ended and Closed-ended Products
◆ Some creators wish to protect their creations from marauders, so intentionally design an inaccessible or closed system. Such closed ended products or ‘close ended architecture‘ lose the favour when equivalent open-ended objects are available.
◆ Products in public (domain) have specifications that are ‘open-ended Architecture‘, and always preferred by the users. Such products allow greater degree of customization.
◆ Specification writers such as designers, aspire to conceive parts and tasks which are independent, or at least have a designed or controlled inter-dependency. Plug in micro chips of modern electronics and other add-on systems are examples of such purposive design.
◆ Design Specifications are aimed at creating or procuring a product or assembling them to form an invoice-able item. These are substantially whole, and similarly identified in Estimate schedules. So often variants of design specifications also appear as brief description on drawings and estimate schedules, each contradicting the other.
◆ Performance Specifications are holistic, and so, ideally should not include a separate or single item of work. Design if any relates to the exterior (such as fitment, size and shape parameters, etc.) rather then its interior (its constituents, method of working, etc.). But these set of specifications are distinctly stratified.3 & 4 state Requirements and Verification and so most important ones.
Strata of Performance Specifications
This Level offers the scope and background information of the project. No requirements are stated here, and even if implied, are not binding.
This lists all the documents that form the set.
Performance requirements are stated here, and these are binding.
Testing and Verification requirements are stated here matching to the performance requirements.
This lists all peripheral aspects of work, such as handling, packaging, shipping, delivery, precautions, etc.
This section contains information (such as method of submission, bid evaluation, etc.) and other data.
Statements of Work (SOW)
Statements of Work (SOW) are unique to each acquisition or proposition document. It documents details of the work to be performed. It consists of first three tiers (see previous para) only. A Specifier (Designer) must prepare on own, or alternatively can seek it from the bidders. There are three types of SOW – Function based, Performance based, and a combination of the two. Selecting the type of SOW depends on how User wants to govern Specific Contract Requirements.
Citing Specifications and Standards
By citing published Specifications and Standards one can make a specification document very compact, extremely reliable, and automatically updating. On the wrong side, citing an incompatible or a cancelled version is unprofessional. When a Specification or Standard is cited, one may actually be citing a lengthy and voluminous chain of documents, many sections of which may not be relevant or impossible to understand. Some of the cited documents could be obsolete or cancelled.
Strategies for Creating Performance Specifications
It is very difficult to conceive a fresh set of exclusive performance specifications. But one can gradually and consciously reformat the traditional specifications with inclusion of performance parameters for standard parts and components. Many resources are available to form performance specifications such as, Government departments and large corporate groups which prepare indexed descriptions of commercial items for frequently or routinely required products, Performance oriented descriptions as available in public domain purchase bids, Trade associations, commercial organizations, or technical societies often develop coordinated standard specifications, for the warranted performance of items produced by their members, Government Departments design and publishes Model Specifications for use by their own sub departments and agencies. Specifications of well-organized departments like defence, telecommunications, etc. can be used for further understanding of the methodology and Market analysis as available in technical journals can show the ranges of performance that are currently possible.
08 SPECIFICATIONS part of the lecture series DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES
Proposed PG Level course. Faculty of Design, CEPT University, Ahmedabad, INDIA Monsoon Semester 2016
DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES ● INTRODUCTION
00 DESIGN MANIFESTS
as a scheme, idea-concept formation or advice
as scheme, plan, documented actions, strategies
as a service, installation, execution, building, erection
01 ORGANIZATIONS : An Organization is generally a formalized entity or an ongoing effort that is adaptive to many different purposes. Whereas an Enterprise mean a one time effort, or set of individualized activities.
02 ESSENTIALS of ORGANIZATIONS : Organizations are set for :
Producing physical things like goods, structures and commodities.
Managing and Servicing various types of systems, projects and setups.
Designing and Distinguishing the means, procedures and objectives.
03 DESIGN ORGANIZATIONS : Design organizations are run as ‘professional’ entities. The professionalism is set by: Person own-self, Professionals themselves (professing similar skills) as a group, Society or by an Authority or Government through law.
04 PROJECTS : Projects with acute time and size dependency occur when conditions are abnormal and survival of an individual or the entire race is threatened, such as during war, a natural calamity, a catastrophe, etc. Best or most successful projects emerge in crisis like acute conditions.
05 JOBS or ASSIGNMENT HANDLING : In Design organizations a project requires distinctive human skills. In Manufacturing organizations there is a heavy dependence on tools, equipment and plants, so the projects are identified for their efficient use. Service organizations are governed by time as key element, so thrive on projects that are time intensive.
06 DELIVERABLES from DESIGN ORGANIZATIONS : Design organizations deliver an entity to a client, who is external and compensates for it. Design organizations also serve an entity to an internal person, department, or an external agency, which was deliberately (planned) created, but for which no definite compensation may be available. Design organizations allow entities to proliferate within the organization (including the sites or at clients’ places) which when properly monitored and exploited improve the efficiency of the organization, its image in the market and core-competence in the field. Such entities could be in the form of products, procedures, styles, judgements, confirmation, rejections, or assurance that every thing operates at desired or predefined level.
07 DEALING WITH A CLIENT : While dealing with clients, what kinds of behaviour, actions or attitude are considered as unethical, malafide or bad, varies from country to country, region to region, profession to profession, and time to time. In professions where rules regarding behaviour have not been formalized it may vary even from a professional to professional.
08 SPECIFICATIONS : Specification at a very basic level could be a description listing the physical qualities of a thing, such as size, weight, shape, colour, feel, etc.. These also cover changes profiled in ‘time’, in the thing itself and the surroundings. One needs to define the process for occurrence. When a description consists of both, the physical characteristics and the processes, sequenced in time, it becomes a Specification.
09 HISTORY of SPECIFICATIONS : Early measure systems such as weights, lengths, volumes, though natural were mutually incompatible, as each had a different scale of sub fractioning. The problem multiplied when equated with equally varied units and sub fractions of monetary units.
10 STANDARDS : Standards emerge from empathy or as a strategic understanding between two or more persons. Standards are commonly accepted specifications for making, maintaining, using and disposing objects, and mechanics of creation, handling, operations and management. Formation of standards’ is the raison d’etre for being a member of clan or society. Governments gain political power and patronage by administering standards. Regional blocks and International communities achieve efficiency by preventing conflict and duplication of effort through standards. Standards, very effectively and economically raise the levels of quality, safety, reliability, efficiency and commutability.
11 WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATIONS and CONFERENCES : World level conferences under United nations and its bodies, by various geographical blocks, interested groups, by political affiliations, etc. on trade, transit, labour, environment and other social concerns have affected the nature of business and practices.
12 BUREAU of INDIAN STANDARDS (BIS) : National Standards formation, in India began soon after the independence in 1947, as Indian Standards Institution (ISI). It started a product certification scheme in 1955. This was recast by Indian parliament in 1986 as Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) and has since then taken over the functions of Indian Standards Institution.
13 INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION (ISO) : ISO is a voluntary, democratic and non governmental organization for international cooperation. It is now a Network of National Standards’ Institutes of 162 countries of the world. It is formed on the basis of one member per country. ISO is a non governmental organization and so cannot regulate or legislate. It has no legal authority to enforce its standards. It evolves standards by consensus.
14 ISO 9000 and OTHER MANAGEMENT STANDARDS : ISO 9000 series provisions, how one conducts own work rather then the quality of the end product, because if the process is rational, it will naturally affect the end product. ISO 9000 series was to ensure that products not only meet just the customers’ requirements but also satisfy all ‘stakeholders’ expectations’.
15 QUALITY for DESIGNERS : Designers are quality conscious on two counts: their own conscience and the public compliance. Designers are conscious that ‘certain personal quality notions’ must be achieved, and ‘certain other public requirements’ must be complied. But consciousness does not translate as conscience, and conscience does not make for compliance.
16 QUALITY CONSCIENCE : Quality as per ISO 8402 `The concept of quality is the totality of features and characteristics of a project, product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy, stated or implied needs’. Quality is both a perception and a value judgment, concerning human satisfaction; the basis for both is ever changing. The characteristics of a project, product or service, by themselves, cannot determine the measure of quality. A project, product and services when satisfactory in every respect, can fail, if the external use conditions are drastically altered during its execution.
17 CONSUMERISM : Stakeholders represent bridges of social connections, which if properly cultivated help public acceptance of designers’ works. The acceptances include new clients, approvals, grants, loans. The social bridges can act as buffers, to tide over the shortfall, on quality expectations, delivery schedules, budget over-runs and professional competition. Stakeholders increase the business credibility of the organization, and personal social reliability.
18 HUMAN RESOURCES : An Employer sees performance as a tool for future efficiency to be gained at a specific cost, whereas the Employee perceives performance as immediate compensation, personal fulfillment, future promotion and skill gain. An employee can be motivated with additional advantage, comfort, increased learning, or even enhanced motivation.
19 LEADERSHIP : ‘Leadership is the ability of an individual to influence, motivate, and enable others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members,’ a person in a position or office of authority, such as a President or a Chairperson.
20 KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION RESOURCES : Organizations receive and generate a lot of data, which have two sets of relevance. Information with distant use is strategic, and will be used for planning and forecasting. Strategic information is more general than any tactical information. Information with immediate use is tactical, and is used for decision making and problem solving. Operational uses of information are very occasion or situation specific.
21 DESIGN PROCESSES : During the last few centuries, a series of products has been ‘improvised’ upon the existing ones. Many of these products were very successful in the market, and to remain ahead of competitors had to be continuously upgraded. One needs to be aware of how others are innovating with radical technologies, styles, additional functional provisions, compactness, energy efficiencies, superior handling, ease of repair and servicing. And one has to absorb these, and deliver it fast.
22 DECISION MAKING and PROBLEM SOLVING : For solving a problem, it is necessary to, severe all the connections and dependencies, and deals with it as a unique entity or separate event. Problem solving leads to a solution or a course of action which may require solving new problems. Problem solving includes steps like: Defining the problem, searching and evaluating the alternatives and Implementing the solution.
23 SYSTEMS THINKING : Traditional building systems are linear, because the components are individually dealt, drawn, built and serviced. This makes it easier to deal with them in different time, space and by different agencies.
A system need not be a realistic structure, but could be a perceived ideology. In the first instance the system has to be web of interconnected-interdependent parts or subsystems, whereas for the second instance it is just necessary to perceive a hierarchy of relationships between several things. These ‘several things’ may not be concurrent in location or occasion. A system is composed of regularly interacting or interrelating groups of activities / parts which, when taken together, form a new whole. In most cases this whole has properties which cannot be found in the constituent elements.
24 RISK MANAGEMENT : Risk is any set of such conditions that adversely affect a human endeavour. One can avoid, manage or accommodate, risks to a limited extent, but beyond these, the effects of risks have to be compensated, replaced or transformed in such a way, that there is a sense of equilibrium. One may not be able to reestablish the lost entity, reenact the missed event or resurrect the dead organization, but one may, indemnify against such losses.
25 SOCIAL CONCERNS, RESPONSIBILITIES : ISO 14000 EMS improves operational efficiency, Cost savings, Energy conservation, Rational use of raw materials and other resource, Better recycling processes, Reduced waste generation and disposal costs, Pollution prevention. Minimize organization’s impact on environment, Reduces environmental liability and risks, Improves community goodwill and societal images, compliance with legislative and regulatory requirements, Improved Industry Government relations, and provides Competitive advantage for `Green’ products. It also offers a range of approaches for Environmental Labels and Declarations, including self declared environmental claims, Eco-labels (seals of approval), and Quantified Environmental Information about Products and Services. It allows environmental aspects to be taken in account in the Design and Development of products.
26 FINANCE, ECONOMICS : A Design professional deals with money mainly to conduct own commercial organization (professional practice) and sometimes to help a client implement the project. The second case like situations are rare, (but occasionally this do happen with small clients) here the designer gets a free hand, to spend someone elses money. However, in a professional practice it is the management of these sums that though may provide a great comfort to the client, but causes problems with the tax authorities.
Index of proposed Lectures
DESIGN IMPLEMENTATION PROCESSES
ESSENTIALS of ORGANIZATIONS
JOBS or ASSIGNMENT HANDLING
DELIVERABLES from DESIGN ORGANIZATIONS
DEALING WITH A CLIENT
HISTORY of SPECIFICATIONS
WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATIONS and CONFERENCES
BUREAU of INDIAN STANDARDS (BIS)
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANIZATION (ISO)
ISO 9000 and OTHER MANAGEMENT STANDARDS
QUALITY for DESIGNERS
KNOWLEDGE AND INFORMATION RESOURCES
DECISION MAKING and PROBLEM SOLVING
SOCIAL CONCERNS, RESPONSIBILITIES
EMERGENT TECHNOLOGIES (Provisional)
SURVEYS and STATISTICAL TOOLS of ANALYSIS (Provisional)